The Most Influential Man in Post-World War II History

The most influential individual in post-World War II history had a hand in creating the United Nations, even donating the property for the building in 1946. No one had greater claim to influence since. By the mid-seventies he owned dominating interests in The New York Times, CBS, NBC, and ABC (Senate Document 93-62, Disclosure of […]

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North Denver Tribune

Throwing history under the bus?

Laurie Dunklee | [email protected]

DOWNTOWN DENVER — The fate of Denver’s 16th Street Mall is again under discussion. The Regional Transportation District proposes replacing the unique pattern of granite pavers with concrete, while historic preservation advocates prefer to rehab the mile-long stretch that was designated “public art of the highest quality” by the Urban Land Institute in 2008.
If this conversation sounds familiar, it’s because a similar proposal to “update” the mall in 2010 was abandoned in favor of saving the pavers.
The 16th Street Mall, Denver’s central spine connecting Union Station to the State Capitol, was designed in 1982 by famous architects I.M. Pei and Partners of New York. “It is a special place in Denver and one of our most iconic,” said Annie Levinsky, executive director of Historic Denver. “The three colors of stone are laid in a pattern to resemble a diamondback rattlesnake. The red stone is the local stone used in many buildings. It’s very Colorado in both its Western identity and its modernity. It stands the test of time.”
Levinsky said the mall is eligible for both local and national historic designation. “The national threshold is usually 50 years but this is a site of extreme significance. Now it is more than 30 years old and it requires help, especially the granite pavers in the transit areas. It’s worthwhile to invest in it because of its value for every generation.”
RTD, which runs the shuttle buses on the mall, says the pavers drive up maintenance costs and pose a safety hazard. “It costs $ 1 million a year to maintain the 16th Street Mall, which is a big chunk for RTD, especially with our other major projects underway,” said Nate Currey, RTD’s senior manager of public relations. The concrete alternative is a more sustainable model to make the mall workable for the 21st Century.”
Currey said the stone pavers and curb design present safety hazards for pedestrians. “The material is slick, especially in the rain or snow. The curb is sloped and it takes people down, especially if they’re wearing heels. It’s a problem for those with limited mobility or limited sight.”
The main features of I.M. Pei’s design include the poly-chromatic granite pavers, wide sidewalks, and a central tree-lined corridor flanked by lighting fixtures. The Mall was designed as a cohesive whole, with its Southwest pattern of granite tiles and lighting that was designed to complement the honey locusts and red oaks planted precisely within the field of the paving pattern.  “The Urban Land Institute designated it because of the unified concept between the pavers, trees and lights,” said Levinsky. “It really is unique. That’s why we’re cautious about changing the design without holistic thinking about the mall at large.”
A 2009-2010 16th Street Mall planning process—which included RTD, the city, the Downtown Denver Partnership and approximately 3,600 private citizens—included a detailed assessment of the mall’s infrastructure. It was concluded that the Mall is an irreplaceable legacy project and the parties agreed to a rehabilitation plan.
The rehabilitation process—including cleaning and repairing the pavers—was begun in 2013, focusing on several blocks at a time. “Some of it got done and we learned a lot about how to do it efficiently,” said Levinsky. “Cleaning the grime off the pavers alleviates their slickness.”
RTD is again proposing the idea of replacing the granite pavers with concrete, a decision the Historic Denver website says is “contradictory to all the previous studies and recommendations, and comes at an especially awkward time.”
Levinsky said: “This most recent conversation came up because RTD got a bid for the next three blocks of rehab that was much more than they anticipated. Denver is in a construction boom and costs are up. But they got only one bid, and we think it’s important to get additional cost estimates.”
Currey said he wasn’t aware that the price had gone up for the next phase of rehab.
RTD is hosting public meetings to consider alternative concrete designs, including a two-color design in a diamond pattern reminiscent of the existing tiles. “It will look beautiful and honor the original design,” said Currey.
Because the Mall is eligible for the National Register of Historic Places, RTD is conducting a cultural resources evaluation under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA). Historic Denver is participating as a consulting party. Evaluation criteria include the importance of the site as it represents the work of a master during a particular period; its high artistic values; and its method of construction.
“We want a more holistic conversation before we change the mall’s materials and alter the physical environment. We want to do it right,” said Levinsky. “We’re introducing alternatives that are not part of RTD’s analysis, that are not about changing the materials. Other alternatives include reducing wear and tear on the pavers by reducing the frequency of buses on the mall, or using lighter buses, or distributing their weight differently.”
Currey said the new electric mall shuttles, rolling out this month, are lighter than the old buses.
A proposal to move the buses off the mall onto 15th or 17th streets isn’t viable, Currey says. “That one-mile stretch is an important circulator that connects two hubs. It would be a struggle for people, especially in bad weather. Also it would require big infrastructure updates on 15th and 17th and who would pay for that?”
He said Denver’s growth is driving the demand for more public transportation. “We’re looking at the new circulation patterns between Union Station and the Capitol. Before the A Line there were 24,000 passengers at Union Station per day; now there are 105,000 coming into downtown at that end. Mall shuttles will run more frequently. People want to get down the mall quickly and it’s our social contract to provide that service.
“Denver has changed over the past 30 years and the question is whether the 16th Street Mall design is an asset or a liability,” Currey continued. “Sixteenth Street makes downtown work. The city, the Downtown Denver Partnership and RTD are working together to make the Mall successful. When it’s healthy it helps our economy.”
Public sentiment is mixed when it comes to preserving the mall’s historic integrity. When a Denver Post opinion poll last month asked whether the pavers should be replaced, the more than 1,800 responses were almost equally divided.
Currey said comments varied at their August 28 public meetings: “The business people who attended the morning public meeting were mostly in favor of replacing the pavers, while the history fans in the afternoon opposed it. So it depends on who you talk to.”
“People who are new to Denver might not understand the significance of the 16th Street Mall and why it’s important to maintain this public realm that is so special,” said Levinsky.
To see the RTD alternatives being discussed or attend a meeting, see
To learn more about the history of the 16th Street Mall and the rehabilitation process, see

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North Denver Tribune

Kanye West Lyrics Perfectly Describe The Story Of Julius Caesar And Cleopatra

                                            <b>Shakespeare would either be proud or he&rsquo;s rolling in his grave.</b> This is a continuation of <a href="">history and lyrical poetry. </a>                                                            

1. Julius Caesar on meeting Cleopatra for the first time:

Jean-Léon Gérôme / Via

2. Caesar restores Cleopatra to the throne:

Pietro da Cortona / Via

3. Cleopatra gives birth to Ptolemy Caesar:

John William Waterhouse / Via

Close enough. Ptolemy was around 17 when he died.

4. Caesar refuses to name Ptolemy as his heir:

Amadscientist / Via

5. Cleopatra arrives in Rome and it’s a huge scandal:

J. Gordon Edwards / Via

6. And Caesar declares:

Lionel Royer / Via

7. Caesar is murdered by the senate on The Ides of March. “Et, tu Brute?”:

Vincenzo Camuccini / Via

8. Cleopatra meets Marc Antony:

Lawrence Alma-Tadema / Via

9. Octavian talking shit about the whole affair:

National Museum of Rome / Via

10. And problems ensue:

Lawrence Alma Tadema / Via

11. Antony when Cleopatra turns her ships around and ditches him after Octavian sends a Roman fleet to conquer Egypt:

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo / Via

12. Cleopatra ends it all after Octavian successfully invades Egypt:

Jean-Baptiste Regnault / Via

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Elitch Gardens in Denver: A History

            Elitch Gardens Amusement Park in Denver has undergone various location and name changes since its inception over a century ago. Commonly known as "Elitchs" to Denver locals, the park has become an important part of the longstanding history of Denver entertainment, and bringing meaning to the popular slogan "Not to See Elitch's is not to see Denver."

Elitch Gardens started out as farmland on 38th and Tennyson in Denver, Colorado. In 1890, John & Mary Elitch purchased 16 acres and opened Elitch Zoological Gardens, a petting zoo. Several years later, they added Elitch Theatre, which became the starting place and host of the oldest summer stock theatre in the United States. Elitch Theatre held summer stock theatre annually from 1897 until its close in 1987.

The first hint of a modern amusement park arrived at Elitch Gardens back in 1904 with the construction of its first roller coaster, called the Toboggan 8. A carousel soon followed the roller coaster in 1906. The carousel never went out of style-it is still in operation today at an amusement park in Burlington, Colorado. The Toboggan 8 roller coaster, however, did not last quite that long.

New ownership brought modernization in the start of the 20th century. John Mulvhill, who bought Elitch’s in 1916, added a Wildcat roller coaster in 1922, designed by the same company as the park’s original Toboggan 8. In 1928 a new carousel arrived, and it is still providing a musical ride for kids at Elitch’s today. Despite the exciting new roller coasters and other attraction additions, the zoo portion of the original Elitch Garden’s remained in place until the 1930s.

During the Big Band and swing era of the 1930s, touring national musical stars frequented the new Trocadero Ballroom. It quickly became a hot spot for concert radio broadcasts nationwide. Around this time, the zoo portion of Elitch’s was replaced by gardens and more adult rides.

As strange as it seems today, the early amusements catered mostly to adults. The amusement park made its first attempt at rides for children in the 1950s with Kiddieland. Kiddieland gained popularity quickly and grew to include a variety of entertaining rides, from child-size motorboats to a miniature car track with a gas station for kids to “fill up their tanks.”

Skee-ball and arcade games made it to Denver’s Elitch’s in the 1970s, replacing the once beloved Trocadoro Ballroom. Soon after, more exciting rollercoasters appeared throughout the park. The same Philadelphia Toboggan Company who designed the park’s Toboggan 8 and Wildcat brought the Mister Twister in 1964. The new rides pushed Elitch Gardens to the edge of it’s available land, creating a need for a new location in the 1980s.

In 1995, Elitch Gardens moved to its current downtown Denver location next to the Platte River Valley, making it one of the few downtown amusement parks in the country. The park made a brief stint as a Six Flags, from 1997 to 2006, after which new ownership changed the title back to “Elitch Gardens.” The “Elitch’s” portion of the amusement park’s name stayed with it for over a century, through more than 5 owners, because a stipulation in the original contract drawn up by Mary Elitch stated that the name was never to be changed. Today, downtown Denver’s Elitch Gardens has 6 roller coasters and a waterpark.

For a place to stay, the Courtyard Denver Downtown offers a hotel package deal that includes 2 tickets to Elitch Gardens. The Denver hotel is a short bike ride or quick 5 minute drive from the Elitch Gardens Amusement Park.

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John Denver and the Muppets: A Christmas Together (full album)

Just thought I’d share something with everyone for the holiday. This is the full album of John Denver and the Muppets: A Christmas Together. It’s really good…
Video Rating: 4 / 5

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History Of Crime In Denver

Crime prevails in every city worldwide as where every individuals stay, you will find criminals too. The city of Denver is no distinct from virtually any city on earth within matter. The only real difference in this sector of city would be the criminal activity rates, that’s, occasionally the crime rate is much too high, whilst in the various other places it’s normal or very low. It-all is dependent upon the effectiveness of the police division alongside department that are related to gathering up the crooks.

The criminal activity in Denver was in fact tracked because of the Denver Police Departments Bureau of Records since the start of twentieth century. In less complicated terms, no written record about the crimes is located before twentieth century. Gangs are typical into the city; however, beside this dilemma the town faced a major violent crimes problem in late 1960s. The amount of murders peaked within the 1974 and 1992. Afterwards the number of murders started initially to reduce while finally in 2002 the town struck its cheapest murder rate.
In the year 1916, 198 homicides were reported by the police department. The crime was not much compared to other United states towns; however, it had been rather large than the European countries. As mentioned prior to the upsurge in violent crime ended up being present in late 1960, with the boost in group figures and other individual crooks.

The crimes committed were mostly, rape, murders, kidnapping then killing the target after obtaining ransom cash an such like. 970 murders had been recorded in the city during 1974 and the demise rate was calculated as 29 folks per 100,000. Then in the future in the year 1992 these types of high murder rates was seen once more when the total number of murders achieved 943. Following the 1992, the police started taking strict activities from the crooks and with the time the number of murders started initially to reduce as well as in 1999 only 705 murders were taped.
The Denver reached the cheapest complete homicide rate, that is, 448 homicides, following the crime fighting practices provided to them in 2004 by l . a . and new york Police division. The murder rate increased around 2005 and 2006 once again, and even though a broad decline in the criminal tasks is visible during these many years. The authorities department report files a decrease from over 70percent to fewer than 60% in murder rate, since 1974 to 2005.

In the year 2005 75per cent of the murder took place as a result of the firearms and 11% occurred because of stabbing. A far more detailed and accurate report is available online with plenty of statistical information regarding the murder rates around 2005 an such like. Because the time Denver was born, the authorities department has actually undergone many changes to improve its performance. Special trained officials tend to be hired for the job along side that for safety measures, the department issued a proposal to set up security camera systems inside buildings and ban an un-authorized individual from having firearms. In addition to that the division was further separated in much specific departments to deal with a particular problem to improve effectiveness.

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